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The upper section, above Chau Doc Chau Phu , has strong natural levees embankments built on either side of the river by accumulated deposits of silt behind which are low, wide depressions.
The middle section has some areas that are well drained, others that are poorly drained and swampy. Along the lower section, formed by the river mouths and by the area to the southwest, sediment carried down from the upper river is in the process of being deposited, and the flooding is less extreme than in the upper sections of the delta.
The area north of the Ca Mau Peninsula is forested and swampy. In April the flow is ordinarily at its lowest. In May or June—as the rain-bearing southerly monsoon winds arrive—the flow begins to increase, with an especially rapid increase in the eastern and northern highlands.
The northeasterly monsoon wind, beginning ordinarily in November in the southern areas, brings dry weather until May. Temperatures in the lower Mekong basin are uniformly warm throughout the year.
In the upper basin, temperatures are moderated somewhat by altitude and generally are lower and exhibit more seasonal variation than those found farther south.
A substantial majority of the people who live along the Mekong River are engaged in agriculture, and rice is the major crop.
The heaviest population concentrations are in the delta and on the Khorat Plateau. The small urban population has been growing rapidly, chiefly through migration to the capital cities.
The peoples of the basin are diverse. Most residents of the uppermost Mekong Valley are Tibetan. South of the Tibetan Highlands, the peoples of the river basin fall into two broad cultural groupings.
The hill peoples subsist mainly through shifting cultivation, and have traditionally formed small, kin-based social units, while the lowland peoples, who practice sedentary agriculture, have formed complex state societies.
The hill peoples speak languages belonging to five different language families: The Cham, a minority lowland people of Vietnam and Cambodia, speak an Austronesian language.
In the lower basin, flood control and water management offer major opportunities to increase economic productivity.
Farmers practicing shifting cultivation on the uplands and the rice growers on the rain-fed lowlands are able, under normal conditions, to grow only one crop a year, taking advantage of wet-season precipitation.
Half of the cultivated land is dependent upon some form of inundation by flood waters. Control of water, however, makes it possible to store water during the dry season and to use this water to produce a second or third crop.
Where storage facilities and the degree of downward slope are favourable, small-scale hydroelectric power facilities have been developed.
After Vietnam replaced South Vietnam on the committee, and Cambodia ceased to participate, although Cambodia has resumed membership since The committee has sponsored a series of preinvestment and general scientific investigations and has undertaken construction of a number of water projects.
These projects include the multipurpose dam near Nam Phong in northeastern Thailand and the hydroelectric dam at Nam Ngum in Laos. The countries of the commission have continued to cooperate despite the political stresses produced by the war in Vietnam and its aftermath and have enlisted the assistance of other countries and international organizations.
There is an elaborate system of canals in the Vietnamese part of the delta. Following the organization of the Mekong Committee, information on the river was consolidated, and in the late s a bibliography and atlas were published.
Bureau of Reclamation , and in the early s a new program for integrated study took shape under the Mekong Committee. Investigations undertaken have included basic mapping, hydrologic observations, flood forecasting, soil surveys, fisheries studies, health studies, engineering-feasibility studies, power-market surveys, and agricultural research and pilot farms.
The engineering studies have provided reconnaissance appraisal of all the tributary basins and a more detailed examination of selected projects.
The focus of Mekong development as a whole has shifted since the mids to planning comprehensive programs for agricultural and community development in areas where water supply was available, with each country working out its individual financial arrangements.
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